Types of food


Types of food Dairy products, eggs, meat, and eggs are examples of foods derived from animals. Cereals, legumes, fruits, and vegetables are examples of foods derived from plants. Plant and animal products fall under the category of fats and oils.

What five food groups are there?

  • Vegetables and fruits
  • Starchy food
  • Protein
  • Dairy ( milk Products)
  • Fat

More information about these, such as where to buy them and how much to eat, is provided below.

Fruit and Vegetable

Fruit- and -vegetables
Fruit- and -vegetables

A minimum of five servings of fruits and vegetables should be used each day. They are rich in fiber, which can lower cholesterol, maintain a healthy intestine, and aid in digestion, as well as essential vitamins and minerals that aid in disease prevention.

Vegetables and fruits

Vegetables- and fruits
Vegetables- and fruits

Eating five or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day is recommended. They include fiber, which can lower cholesterol, maintain a healthy intestine, and aid in digestion, in addition to vital vitamins and minerals that aid in disease prevention.

Due to their low-fat content, fruits and vegetables are excellent for adding volume to meals and satisfying your hunger without packing too many calories.

Getting your five a day is simple if you split your portions all through the day. Try this:

  • Slicing bananas and adding them to toast or cereal for breakfast
  • Snacking on some fruit in the middle of the morning
  • Serving vegetable soup or a bowl of salad for lunch.

In the middle of the afternoon, munching on a bowl of raw carrots, peppers, and cucumbers

  • Putting in some vegetables for dinner.
  • Count as a portion of vegetables and fruits
  • One fruit of a similar size, such as an orange, banana, pear, or apple
  • Two plums or fruits of the same size
  • Half an avocado or grapefruit
  • One thick slice of melon or pineapple
  • Three heaping  tablespoons of vegetable
  • Three heaping  tablespoons of stewed or fruit salad
  • A bowl of salad for dessert

You can only count the following foods and beverages once a day, but they also count as one portion:

  • Three heaping tablespoons of pulses or beans
  • One heaping tablespoon of dried fruit, such as apricots or raisins
  • 150 ml of smoothie or fruit juice.

Reduce your daily intake of fruit juice and smoothies to no more than 150 ml, or roughly one small glass, as they are high in sugar. Because dried fruit contains a lot of sugar, it’s best to avoid eating it between meals to help prevent dental decay.

Starchy food

Starchy -food
Starchy -food

About one-third of your diet should consist of starchy foods like bread, pasta, rice, and potatoes. They provide a good amount of energy and are a good source of vitamins, calcium, iron, and fiber. Starchy foods have less than half the calories of fat per gram. Avoid adding butter, oil, spreads, cheese, or jam to starchy foods, as this will only increase the calorie content.

Nutrients and fiber are typically higher in wholegrain foods. They can keep you feeling fuller for longer because they take longer to digest. Wholegrain breakfast cereals, brown rice, wholewheat pasta, whole oats, wholemeal bread, pitta, and chapatti are a few examples of wholegrain foods. Higher-fiber products, such as 50/50 bread, can be purchased that are made with a blend of wholegrain and white flour.

A few Tips to  Eat more Starchy Foods 

You can include more starchy foods in your diet by following the tips below:

  • If you want to eat more fiber, go for wholegrain varieties.
  • A hearty breakfast of porridge is ideal for the winter.
  • A delicious summertime breakfast is whole oats combined with fruit and yogurt.
  • Choose wholegrain cereals, or combine them with your favorite cereal.
  • Try a variety of breads, including granary, wholemeal, and seeded ones.
  • When making rice salad, brown rice is a great option.

Dairy Products and Milk

Dairy Products and Milk
Dairy Products and Milk

Milk provides all the nutrients required for the growth of specific species because it is nearly the only food source for young mammals. The primary proteins include several immunoglobulins, casein, and lactalbumin. High-biological-value proteins contain a lot of lysine, an essential amino acid that is lacking in cereals and can therefore be appropriately supplemented when combined with cereals (such as pasta with cheese or milk porridge). The only food that contains lactose, or milk sugar, is milk and milk products. There are very few unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. Vitamins that are soluble in fat as well as in water are found in milk. The amount varies based on the kind of feeding and is typically greater in the summer.

Water Soluble Vitamins

Processing does not affect the content of fat-soluble vitamins because they are fairly stable. Water-soluble vitamins lose some of their content through processing and storage (thiamine through pasteurization, riboflavin through light storage, and vitamin C through heat processing and storage). Sixty percent of the calcium in our diet comes from milk and dairy products. In addition, if the feed contains it, milk is a source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and iodine. Reduced fat content is reflected in a corresponding decrease in the amount of fat-soluble vitamins found in low-fat milk and milk products. On the other hand, the “water part,” which contains the inorganic nutrients and water-soluble vitamins, will become somewhat more concentrated as a result of fat removal. One of the riskiest foods is probably fresh milk.

In developed nations, milk-borne brucellosis and TB were eradicated through pasteurization and herd management of cattle. Even though milk contains the carbohydrate lactose, several studies have shown that it is not cariogenic and may even be protective. Numerous studies indicate that even cheeses may have it. Enamel does not dissolve because of the high calcium and phosphate content of milk.

While casein can have a particular anti-caries effect, milk protein tends to be adsorbed on the tooth’s surface, preventing it from dissolving. Fresh milk does not have a shelf life, so over time, various methods of processing it to enable transportation and preservation have been developed, leading to the wide variety of milk products available today. Cheese is produced from curdled milk. Even within a single variety, cheeses vary greatly in composition due to the vast disparities in production methods. Certain cheeses should have a warning on the package about their high salt content.

Iodine Deficiency 

In regions where iodine deficiency is endemic, it is especially important to iodize the salt used. Milk is fermented with lactobacilli to produce fermented milk products. Lactose undergoes fermentation to produce lactic acid, which lowers pH and prevents the growth of many pathogenic microorganisms. Yogurts are full of all the nutrients in milk, minus lactose. Yogurts should be labeled with their fat content.

Cream yogurts have at least 10.0 g of fat, reduced-fat yogurts less than 3.0 g, and low-fat yogurts less than 0.5 g per 100 g. Products, particularly yogurts, containing Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two so-called probiotic microorganisms, have been available recently. Research indicates that they may have beneficial effects on immunity, blood cholesterol levels, and the incidence of specific cancers.




Pulses include legumes, beans, and peas. They have a very low natural fat content and are an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. No matter how much you eat, they only count as one portion toward your daily five.

Pulses are a fantastic way to add more volume to dishes like meat sauces, soups, and casseroles. They allow you to use less meat because they increase the flavor and texture. Your budget will also stretch farther because pulses are typically less expensive than meat, allowing you to eat less fat overall.

Other proteins from vegetables

Additional protein-rich plant-based options comprise Quorn, mycoprotein, bean curd, and tofu. They can be used in most recipes in place of meat because they are low in fat and high in protein.

 Seafood Fish

Fish is a fantastic source of vitamins, minerals, and protein.  Try to eat two or more portions of fish per week, at least one of which should be high in oil (about 140g). Select from fish that is canned, frozen, or fresh.

Fish high in Oil

Omega-3 fatty acids, found in oil-rich fish like salmon and mackerel, support heart health and are a good source of vitamins A and D.

Most of us shouldn’t eat more than four portions of oil-rich fish per week because they may contain low levels of pollutants that can accumulate in the body. If you are breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant, or already pregnant, there are additional guidelines to follow.

Shellfish and Whitefish

Fish such as haddock, plaice, coley, cod, skate, and hake are considered white fish. It’s a fantastic meat substitute that is low in fat and rich in essential vitamins and minerals.

Select white fish that is fresh, frozen, or canned; keep in mind, however, that smoked or brine-tinned fish may contain high levels of salt.

Marlin Shark and Swordfish

Adults should limit their weekly intake of swordfish, shark, or marlin to one portion. Since swordfish has a higher mercury content than other fish, it should not be consumed by young people, expectant mothers, or women who are trying to become pregnant.


Protein, vitamins, and minerals are all present in good amounts in eggs. There is no suggested upper limit on the quantity of eggs one may consume in a week, and they are a healthy and balanced food option. Eggs are excellent for preparing fast, healthy meals. When cooking eggs, try to limit the amount of fat you add. Boiling, scrambling, or poaching work best. If you do fry eggs, use healthier unsaturated oils like vegetable, rapeseed, or olive oil, and don’t add too much to the pan. More details about cooking eggs can be found on our pages about food safety.

Eat fewer quiches and flans (although they do contain eggs) because they can be heavy in fat and salt.



Protein, vitamins, and minerals can all be found in meat. Vitamin B12, an essential vitamin that can only be found in animal-based foods like meat and milk, is one of its main sources. Proper handling and cooking techniques for meat are crucial.

Processed and red Meat

All types of red meat, such as pork, lamb, venison, and beef, can be included in a balanced diet. Meat that has been salted, smoked, cured, or given preservatives is referred to as processed meat. Meat products such as sausages, bacon, burgers, ham, salami, and pâté are examples of processed meat.

Bowel cancer risk can be raised by consuming excessive amounts of red and processed meat. Limit your daily intake of red and processed meat to no more than 70g, which is equivalent to about two sausages or slices of roast beef. If you consume more than 90g (roughly three roast meat slices) of red and processed meat each day, try reducing your intake.

There are meat varieties that contain more fat, particularly saturated fat. Consuming large quantities of saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol levels, raising the risk of heart disease and stroke. Always aim to select meat that is lean and has less discernible white fat.

Tips to help reduce the fat content of meat dishes:

  • To make your meal last longer, replace some of the meat with beans, peas, or lentils.
  • Rather than frying meat, grill it.
  • When roasting meat, set it on a metal rack over the roasting pan to allow the fat to drip off.
  • Choose leaner mince and cuts; ask your butcher or look it up on the label.
  • Before or after cooking, trim off any excess fat.
  • When cooking, try to use as little fat as possible.
  • Use plant-based protein sources in place of some of the meat in your recipe.


Spreads and oils

speards- and oils
spreads- and oils

While some fat is necessary in our diets, most people consume too much of it. Because they are high in unsaturated fat, plant-based oils like olive, rapeseed, and vegetable oil can help lower cholesterol and lower the risk of heart disease. Butter can be substituted with lower-fat unsaturated spreads.

Foods and drinks that are heavy in sugar salt and fat

Chocolate, cakes, biscuits, savory snacks, and full-sugar soft drinks are examples of foods and beverages that are high in fat, salt, or sugar. This type of food accounts for half of Scotland’s sugar intake and about 20% of its calories and fat. Foods and beverages that are high in fat, salt, and sugar typically have a high-calorie content and little nutritional value, so they shouldn’t be included in a balanced, healthy diet.

If you do want to eat this type of food, try to limit how often and how much you eat it. In Scotland, most people eat too much sugar; in fact, we should cut our sugar intake by two-thirds. Excessive consumption of sugar raises the risk of obesity and tooth decay.


Fluid replacement is necessary because the body loses fluids continuously through breathing, perspiration, and bathroom visits. To help keep the body hydrated, try to consume 6–8 glasses of fluid each day.

Tea and coffee count as well as water, lower-fat milk, and sugar-free beverages. Select sugar-free alternatives over sweetened beverages.

Due to their high sugar content, keep your daily intake of fruit juices and smoothies to a maximum of 150 ml.

There are many calories in alcohol, but how many calories in a drink depends on the type of alcohol, how much is served, and whether or not mixers are added. For instance, a 25-ml shot of spirit has about 56 calories, whereas a pint of lager or a 175-ml glass of wine has about 135 calories.

Men and women should only consume up to 14 units of alcohol per week to reduce the health risks associated with alcohol consumption. A 175-ml glass of wine or a pint of standard-strength lager or cider contains two units, whereas one unit is equivalent to one small single measure of spirits.


Dehydration occurs when we don’t consume enough fluids. Feeling thirsty is one of the earliest symptoms of dehydration, but there are other indicators as well:

when you use the restroom, you have darker urine than usual or less urine production


experiencing difficulty focusing or feeling confused or agitated.

If you are worried about any of these symptoms, consult your physician.


Foods can be divided into several categories according to their nutritional value, preparation techniques, and place of origin. One way to categorize things is by cuisine, like Mexican, Chinese, or Italian, each of which has its unique ingredients and flavors. Food can also be categorized according to its primary ingredients, which include dairy, grains, fruits, vegetables, and proteins. Vegetables cover a broad spectrum of produce, such as spinach, carrots, and tomatoes, while grains include staples like rice, wheat, and oats.

Fruits such as apples, oranges, and bananas have a range of flavors, from sweet to sour. Meat, chicken, fish, tofu, and legumes are some of the foods that contain proteins. Yogurt, cheese, and milk are examples of dairy products. There are also other categories with distinct flavors and textures, such as snacks, desserts, and beverages. Having an understanding of these categories facilitates the creation of varied and well-balanced meals for a healthy diet.

Frequently Asked Question

What is the classification of food?

Foods can also be categorized according to the nutrients they contain. foods high in carbohydrates: potatoes, wheat, rice, sugar, and foods high in protein, such as eggs, milk, meat, fish, and pulses. foods high in fat, such as butter, ghee, oil, and groundnuts. Vitamin-rich foods include fruits and leafy green vegetables.

What are food’s main purposes?

They supply us with the nourishment we need to survive. They give the body energy, which supports growth, well-being, and physical activity. Food gives the body the nutrients it needs to create new cells and tissues for growth. It gives the body immunity, which aids in the defense against illness.

Which 6 simple nutrients are there?

Vitamins, minerals, protein, fats, water, and carbohydrates are the six essential nutrients.

Does starch help with weight loss?

Eating more resistant starch will result in consuming fewer calories, which will help you lose weight because resistant starch is thought to contain only two calories as opposed to regular starch’s four calories. Replacing simple starches with resistant starches during a diet could aid in weight loss.

What is the main role of a protein?

The human body is made up of protein in every cell. An amino acid chain makes up the basic building blocks of proteins. For your body to create new cells and repair damaged ones, your diet must include protein. Additionally, protein is crucial to a child’s, adolescent’s, and pregnant woman’s growth and development.

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